Reading Comprehension 11

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Organic architecture – that is, natural architecture – may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mereaesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it. If these natural principles are upheld, then a bank cannot be built to look like a Greek temple. Form does not follow function; rather, form and function are inseparably two aspects of the same phenomenon. In other words, a building should be inspired by nature’s form and constructed with materials that retain and respect the natural characteristics of the setting to create harmony between the structure and its natural environment. It should maximize people’s contact with and utilization of the outdoors. Furthermore, the rule of functionalism is upheld; that is, the principle of excluding everything that serves no practical purpose.

Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale. Like a sculptor, the organic architect views the site and materials as an innate form that develops organically from within. Truth in architecture results in a natural, spontaneous structure in total harmony with the setting. For the most part, these structures find their geometric shapes in the contours of the land and their colors in the surrounding palette of nature.

From the outside, an organic structure is so much a part of nature that is often obscured by it. In other words, it may be not easy, or maybe not even possible, for the human eye to separate the artificial structure from the natural terrain. Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors. From the inside, living spaces open into one another. The number of walls for separate rooms is reduced to a minimum, allowing the functional spaces to flow together. Moreover, the interiors are sparse. Organic architecture incorporates built-in architectural features such as benches and storage areas to take the place of furniture.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Promulgation : to make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally orputinto operation (a law, decree of a court, etc.).
  • Outright : complete or total
  • Imposed : to lay on or set as something to be borne, endured, obeyed, fulfilled,paid,etc.
  • Mere : being nothing more nor better than
  • Aesthetics : the branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful,theugly, the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with aview toestablishing the meaning and validity of critical judgmentsconcerning works of art,and the principles underlying or justifying suchjudgments.
  • Ultimately : last; furthest or farthest; ending a process or series
  • Upheld : to support or defend, as against opposition or criticism
  • Phenomenon : a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable
  • Retain : to keep possession of.
  • Utilization : to put to use; turn to profitable account
  • Innate : existing in one from birth; inborn; native
  • Contours : the outline of a figure or body; the edge or line that defines or boundsashape or object.
  • Obscured : (of meaning) not clear or plain; ambiguous, vague, or uncertain
  • Artificial : made by human skill; produced by humans (opposed to natural)
  • Terrain : a tract of land, especially as considered with reference to itsnaturalfeatures, military advantages, etc.
  • Permeate : to pass into or through every part of
  • Sparse : thinly scattered or distributed
  • Incorporates : to form into a legal corporation.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Organic architecture or natural architecture may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mere aesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it.
  • Paragraph two : Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale.
  • Paragraph three : Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. According to this passage, what is another name for organic architecture?

  • A. Natural architecture
  • B. Aesthetic architecture
  • C. Principle architecture
  • D. Varied architecture

2. The word ultimate in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Formulate
  • B. Eventually
  • C. Supposedly
  • D. Obviously

3. The word upheld paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Invalidated
  • B. Disputed
  • C. Promoted
  • D. Perceived

4. The following examples are all representative of natural architecture EXCEPT ?

  • A. A bank that is built to look like a Greek temple
  • B. A bank built so that the location is important to the structure
  • C. A bank that is built to conform to the colors of the natural surroundings
  • D. A bank that is built to be functional rather than beautiful

5. Why does the author compare an organic architect to a sculptor?

  • A. To emphasize aesthetics
  • B. To give an example of natural principles
  • C. To make a point about the development of geometry
  • D. To demonstrate the importance of style

6. The word obscured paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Difficult to see
  • B. In high demand
  • C. Not very attractive
  • D. Mutually beneficial

7. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

  • A. Form follows function
  • B. Function follows form
  • C. Function is not important to form
  • D. Form and function are one

8. Which of the following statements best describes the architect’s view of nature?

  • A. Nature should be conquered.
  • B. Nature should not be considered.
  • C. Nature should be respected.
  • D. Nature should be improved.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Organic architecture or natural architecture may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mere aesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it. Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale. Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors.

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