1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS
Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles, along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment, have overcome some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment for scientist’s research on the great oceans of the world. Without a vehicle, divers often became sluggish, and their mental concentration was severely limited. Because undersea pressure affects their speech organs, communication among divers has always been difficult or impossible. But today, most oceanographers avoid the use of vulnerable human divers, preferring to reduce the risk to human life and make direct observation by means of instruments that are lowered into the ocean, from samples taken from the water, or from photographs made by orbiting satellites. Direct observations of the ocean floor can be made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines in the water and even by the technology of sophisticated aerial photography from vantage points above the surface of the water. Some submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. In addition, radio equipped buoys can be operated by remote control in order to transmit information back to land-based laboratories via satellite. Particularly important for ocean study are data about water temperature, currents, and weather. Satellite photographs can show the distribution of sea ice, oil slicks, and cloud formations over the ocean. Maps created from satellite pictures can represent the temperature and color of the ocean’s surface, enabling researchers to study the ocean currents from laboratories on dry land. Furthermore, computers help oceanographers to collect, organize, and analyze data from submarines and satellite. By creating a model of the ocean’s movement and characteristics, scientists can predict the patterns and possible effects of the ocean on the environment.
Recently, many oceanographers have been relying more on satellites and computers than on research ships or even submarine vehicles because they can supply a greater range of information more quickly and more effectively. Some of humankind’s most serious problems, especially those concerning energy and food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by this new technology.
2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING
- Breakthroughs : an act or instance of removing or surpassing an obstruction orrestriction; the overcoming of a stalemate.
- Sluggish : slow to act or respond.
- Oceanographers : the branch of physical geography dealing with the ocean.
- Vulnerable : (of a place) open to assault; difficult to defend.
- Instruments : a mechanical tool or implement, especially one used for delicate orprecision work.
- Photographs : a picture produced by photography.
- Submarines : a vessel that can be submerged and navigated under water, usually built for warfare and armed with torpedoes or guided missiles.
- Sophisticated : (of a person, ideas, tastes, manners, etc.) altered by education, experience, etc., so as to be worldly-wise; not naive: a sophisticated young socialite.
- Aerial : operating on a track or cable elevated above the ground.
- Vantage : a position, condition, or place affording some advantage or acommanding view.
- Buoys : Nautical a distinctively shaped and marked float, sometimes carrying a signal or signals, anchored to mark a channel, anchorage, navigational hazard, etc., or to provide a mooring place away from theshore.
- Slicks : smooth and glossy; sleek.
- Enabling : conferring new legal powers or capacities, especially by removing adisability; having the right to license or regulate.
3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH
- Paragraph one : Recent technology advanced in undersea vehicles have overcom some of the limitatios of divers and diving equipment for research on the ocean. A man without vehicle become sluggish under the sea, and their mental concentration was severely limited. But today, most oceanographers avoid the use of human divers. Direct observations of the ocean floor can be made not only by dives but also by deep-diving submaries. Furthermore, computers help oceanographers to collect, organize, and analyze data.
- Paragraph two : Many oceanographers relying on stelites and computers than research ship or submarines because with satelites and computer they can supply a greater range of information.
4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN
1. With which topic is the passage primarily concerned?
- A. Technological advances in oceanography
- B. Communication among divers
- C. Direct observation of the ocean floor
- D. Undersea vehicles
2. The word sluggish in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to?
- A. Nervous
- B. Confuse
- C. Slow moving
- D. Very week
3. Divers have had problems in communicating under water because?
- A. The pressure affected their speech organs
- B. The vehicles they used have not been perfected
- C. They did not pronounce clearly
- D. The water destroyed their speech organs
4. This passage suggests that the successful exploration of the ocean depends upon?
- A. Vehicles as well as divers
- B. Radios that divers use to communicate
- C. Controlling currents and the weather
- D. The limitations of diving equipment
5. Undersea vehicles ?
- A. Are too small for a man to fit inside
- B. Are very slow to respond
- C. Have the same limitations that divers have
- D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor
6. The word cruise in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
- A. Travel at a constant speed
- B. Function without problems
- C. Stay in communication
- D. Remain still
7. How is radio-equipped buoy operated?
- A. By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater
- B. By operators outside the vehicle on a ship
- C. By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform
- D. By operators outside the vehicle on a laboratory on shore
8. Which of the following are NOT shown in satellite photographs?
- A. The temperature of the ocean’s surface
- B. Cloud formation over the ocean
- C. A model of the ocean’s movements
- D. The location of sea ice
5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE
Recent technology advanced in undersea vehicles have overcom some of the limitatios of divers and diving equipment for research on the ocean. A man without vehicle become sluggish under the sea, and their mental concentration was severely limited. But today, most oceanographers avoid the use of human divers. Direct observations of the ocean floor can be made not only by dives but also by deep-diving submaries. Furthermore, computers help oceanographers to collect, organize, and analyze data. Many oceanographers relying on stelites and computers than research ship or submarines because with satelites and computer they can supply a greater range of information.