Reading Comprehension 4

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Soil : the portion of the earth’s surface consisting of disintegrated rock andhumus.
  • Essential : pertaining to or constituting the essence of a thing.
  • Yield : to give forth or produce by a natural process or in return for cultivation.
  • Lime : a calcium compound for improving crops grown in soils deficient inlime.
  • Designate : to mark or point out; indicate; show; specify.
  • Granules : a small particle; pellet.
  • Demand : to ask for with proper authority; claim as a right.
  • Convenient : suitable or agreeable to the needs or purpose; well suited with respectto facility or ease in use; favorable, easy, or comfortable for use.
  • Surplus : something that remains above what is used or needed.
  • Leached : to dissolve out soluble constituents from (ashes, soil, etc.) bypercolation.
  • Accumulations : growth by continuous additions, as of interest to principal.
  • Accelerate : to cause faster or greater activity, development, progress,advancement, etc.
  • Cattle : bovine animals, especially domesticated members of the genus Bos.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Fertilizer can be added to the soil, it made from natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw. And now fertilier became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice.
  • Paragraph two : A complete fertilizer usually consisting with three number of formula, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which desegnite the precentage of nitrogen, phosporic acid, and potash. Synthetic fertilizers produced by factories, it available in many form like solid, liquid, and powders.
  • Paragraph three : Fertilizer have no harmful effects if we used it according to the recommendations based from local research result. But if we use fertilizer more than necessary it can make a bad effect, like disturb the natural cycle of life.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?

  • A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer
  • B. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid fertilizer
  • C. A formula for the production of fertilizer
  • D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

2. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?

  • A. Limited
  • B. Preferred
  • C. Anticipated
  • D. Required

3. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?

  • A. Nitrogen
  • B. Phosphorus
  • C. Acid
  • D. Potash

4. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?

  • A. 3 percent
  • B. 5 percent
  • C. 7 percent
  • D. 8 percent

5. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Modify
  • B. Specify
  • C. Limit
  • D. Increase

6. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?

  • A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  • B. Solids are difficult to store.
  • C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  • D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

7. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?

  • A. Powder
  • B. Solids
  • C. Liquids
  • D. Fertilizer

8. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

  • A. Effective
  • B. Plentiful
  • C. Easy to use
  • D. Heap to produce

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil, it made from natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw.  A complete fertilizer usually consisting with three number of formula, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which desegnite the precentage of nitrogen, phosporic acid, and potash. Synthetic fertilizers produced by factories, it available in many form like solid, liquid, and powders. Fertilizer have no harmful effects if we used it according to the recommendations based from local research result.

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