Reading Comprehension 14

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

The Federal Reserve System, as an independent agency of the United States government, is charged with overseeing the national banking system. Since 1913 the Federal Reserve System, commonly called the Fed, has served as the central bank for the United Stated. The system consists of twelve District Reserve Bank and their branch offices, along with several committees and councils. All national commercial banks are required bay law to be members of the Fed, and all deposit-taking institutions like credit unions are subject to regulation by Fed regarding the amount of deposited funds that must be held in reserve and that by definition, therefore, are not available for loans. The most powerful body is seven-member Board of Governors in Washington, appointed by the President and by the Senate.

The System’s primarily function is to control monetary policy by influencing the cost and availability of money and credit through the purchase and sale of government securities. If the Federal Reserve provides too little, money, interest rates tent to be high, borrowing is expensive, business activity slows down, unemployment goes up, and danger of recession is augmented. If there is too much money, interest rate decline, and borrowing can lead to excess demand, pushing up prices and fueling inflation.

The Fed has several responsibilities in addition to controlling the money supply. In collaboration with the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Fed puts new coins and paper currency into circulation by issuing them to banks. It also supervises the activities of member banks abroad, and regulates certain aspects of international finance.

It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is composed of national policy makers. However, in practice, the Federal Reserve does not stray from the financial policies established by the executive branch of the government. Although it is true that the Fed does not depend on Congress for budged allocations, and therefore is free from the partisan politics that influence most of the other governmental bodies, it is still responsible for frequent reports to the Congress on the conduct of monetary policies.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Consists : to be made up or composed (usually followed by of)
  • Branch : any member or part of a body or system; a section or subdivision
  • Several : being more than two but fewer than many in number or kind
  • Institutions : an organization, establishment, foundation, society, or the like,devotedto the promotion of a particular cause or program, especiallyone of a public,educational, or charitable character
  • Regulation : a law, rule, or other order prescribed by authority, especially to regulate conduct.
  • Funds : a supply of money or pecuniary resources, as for some purpose
  • Loans : the act of lending; a grant of the temporary use of something
  • Senate : an assembly or council of citizens having the highest deliberativefunctionsin a government, especially a legislative assembly of a stateor nation.
  • Monetary : of or relating to the coinage or currency of a country.
  • Demand : to ask for with proper authority; claim as a right
  • Inflation : Economics. a persistent, substantial rise in the general level ofpricesrelated to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the lossof valueof currency
  • Issuing : the act of sending out or putting forth; promulgation; distribution
  • Supervises : to oversee (a process, work, workers, etc.) during executionorperformance; superintend; have the oversight and direction of.
  • Finance : the management of revenues; the conduct or transaction of moneymattersgenerally, especially those affecting the public, as in the fieldsof banking andinvestment.
  • Established : to found, institute, build, or bring into being on a firm or stable basis
  • Budged : to move slightly; begin to move

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : The Federal Reserve System, as an independent agency of the United States government, is charged with overseeing the national banking system. Since 1913 the Federal Reserve System, commonly called the Fed, has served as the central bank for the United Stated.
  • Paragraph two : The System’s primarily function is to control monetary policy by influencing the cost and availability of money and credit through the purchase and sale of government securities.
  • Paragraph three : The Fed has several responsibilities in addition to controlling the money supply.
  • Paragraph four : It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is composed of national policy makers. However, in practice, the Federal Reserve does not stray from the financial policies established by the executive branch of the government.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage?

  • A. Banking
  • B. The Federal Reserve System
  • C. The Board of Governors
  • D. Monetary Policies

2. The word overseeing in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Supervising
  • B. Maintaining
  • C. Financing
  • D. Stimulating

3. The word confirmed in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Modified
  • B. Considered
  • C. Examined
  • D. Approved

4. According to the passage, the principal responsibility of the Federal Reserve System is ?

  • A. To borrow money
  • B. To regulate monetary policies
  • C. To print government securities
  • D. To appoint the Board of Governors

5. The word securities in the paragraph 2 is intended to mean ?

  • A. Debs
  • B. Bonds
  • C. Protection
  • D. Confidence

6. What happen when the Federal Reserve provides too little money?

  • A. Demand for loans increases.
  • B. Unemployment slows down.
  • C. Interest rates go up
  • D. Business expand

7. In paragraph 2, the author suggests that inflation is caused by ?

  • A. High unemployment rates
  • B. Too much money in the economy
  • C. Very high fuel prices
  • D. A limited supply of goods

8. What does the author mean by the statement However, in practice, the Federal Reserve does not stray from the financial policies established by the executive branch of the government?

  • A. The Fed more powerful than the executive branch of the government.
  • B. The policies of the Fed and of the executive branch of the government are not the same.
  • C. The Fed tends to follow the policies of the executive branch of the government.
  • D. The Fed reports to the executive branch of the government.

9. All of the following statements could be included in summary of the passage EXCEPT ?

  • A. The Federal Reserve is an independent agency of the United States government.
  • B. The Federal Reserve controls the flow of money and credit by buying and selling government securities.
  • C. The Federal Reserve issues new coins and currency to banks.
  • D. The Federal Reserve receives its yearly budget from Congress.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

The Federal Reserve System, as an independent agency of the United States government, is charged with overseeing the national banking system. Since 1913 the Federal Reserve System, commonly called the Fed, has served as the central bank for the United Stated. It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is composed of national policy makers. However, in practice, the Federal Reserve does not stray from the financial policies established by the executive branch of the government.

Reading Comprehension 13

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

This question has often been posed: Why were the Wright brothers able to succeed in an effort at which so many others had failed? Many explanations have been mention, but three reasons are most often cited. First, they were a team. Both men worked congenially and cooperatively, read the same books, located and shared information, talked incessantly about the possibility of  manned flight, and served as a consistent source of inspiration and encouragement to each other. Quite simply, two geniuses are better than one.

Both were glider pilots. Unlike some other engineers who experimented with the theories of flight. Orville and Wilbur Wright experienced the practical aspects of aerodynamics by building and flying in kites and gilders. Each craft they built was slightly superior to the last, as they incorporated knowledge that they had gained from previous failures. They had realized from their experiments that the most serious challenge in manned flight would be stabilizing and maneuvering the aircraft once it was airborne. While others concentrated their efforts on the problem of achieving lift for take off, the Wright brother were focusing on developing a three-axis control for guiding their aircraft. By the time that the brothers started to build an airplane, they were already among the word’s best glider pilots; they knew the problems of riding the air first hand.

In addition, the Wright brothers had designed more effective wings for the airplane than had been previously engineered. Using a wind tunnel, they tested more than two hundred different wing designs, recording the effects of slight variations in shape on the pressure of air on the wings. The data from these experiments allowed the Wright brothers to construct a superior wing for their aircraft.

In spite of these advantages, however, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at precisely the opportune moment in history. Attempts to achieve manned flight in the early nineteenth century were doomed because the steam engines that powered the aircrafts were too heavy in proportion to the power that they produced. But by the end of the nineteenth century, when the brothers were experimenting with engineering options, a relatively light internal combustion engine had already been invented, and they were able to bring the ratio of weight to power within acceptable limits for flight.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Cited : to mention in support, proof, or confirmation; refer to as an example
  • Congenially : agreeable, suitable, or pleasing in nature or character
  • Manned : carrying or operated by one or more persons
  • Glider : a motorless, heavier-than-air aircraft for gliding from a higher to alower levelby the action of gravity or from a lower to a higher level bythe action of air currents.
  • Aerodynamics : the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air andothergases and with the effects of such motion on bodies in the medium.
  • Incorporated : formed or constituted as a legal corporation.
  • Maneuvering : a planned and regulated movement or evolution of troops,warships,etc.
  • Airborne : carried by the air, as pollen or dust.
  • Axis : the line about which a rotating body, such as the earth, turns.
  • Tunnel : any passage or channel through or under something
  • Advantages : any state, circumstance, opportunity, or means specially favorabletosuccess, interest, or any desired end
  • Doomed : fate or destiny, especially adverse fate; unavoidable ill fortune
  • Steam : water in the form of an invisible gas or vapor.
  • Combustion : the act or process of burning.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : The reasons why the Wright brothers succeed were both men worked congenially and cooperatively, read the same books, located and shared information, talked incessantly about the possibility of  manned flight, and served as a consistent source of inspiration and encouragement to each other.
  • Paragraph two : Both were glider pilots. Unlike some other engineers who experimented with the theories of flight. Orville and Wilbur Wright experienced the practical aspects of aerodynamics by building and flying in kites and gilders.
  • Paragraph three : The Wright brothers had designed more effective wings for the airplane than had been previously engineered. Using a wind tunnel, they tested more than two hundred different wing designs, recording the effects of slight variations in shape on the pressure of air on the wings.
  • Paragraph four : In spite of these advantages, however, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at precisely the opportune moment in history.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

  • A. The reasons why the Wright brothers succeeded in manned flight.
  • B. The advantage of the internal combustion engine in the Wright brothers’ experiments.
  • C. The Wright brothers’ experience as pilots.
  • D. The importance of gliders to the development of airplanes.

2. The word cited in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

  • A. Disregarded
  • B. Mentioned
  • C. Considered
  • D. Proven

3. The word incessantly in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?

  • A. Confidently
  • B. Intelligently
  • C. Constantly
  • D. Optimistically

4. What kind of experience did the Wright brothers have that distinguished them from their competitor?

  • A. They were geniuses.
  • B. They were gilder pilots.
  • C. They were engineers.
  • D. They were inventors.

5. Why does the author suggest that the experiments with the wind tunnel were important?

  • A. Because they allowed the Wright brothers to decrease the weight of their airplane to acceptable limits
  • B. Because they resulted in a three-axis control for their airplane
  • C. Because they were important in the refinement of the wings for their airplane
  • D. Because they used the data to improve the engine for their airplane

6. The word they in the paragraph 3 refers to ?

  • A. The Wright brothers
  • B. Aircraft
  • C. Engine
  • D. Attempts

7. The word doomed in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Destined to fail
  • B. Difficult to achieve
  • C. Taking a risk
  • D. Not well planned

8. In paragraph 4, the author suggests that the steam engines used in earlier aircraft had failed because ?

  • A. They were too small to power a large plane.
  • B. They were too light to generate enough power.
  • C. They did not have internal combustion power.
  • D. They did not have enough power to lift their own weight.

9. The passage discusses all of the following reasons that the Wright brothers succeeded EXCEPT ?

  • A. They worked very well together.
  • B. They both had practical experience building other aircraft.
  • C. They made extensive tests before they completed the design.
  • D. They were well funded.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

The reasons why the Wright brothers succeed were both men worked congenially and cooperatively, read the same books, located and shared information, talked incessantly about the possibility of  manned flight, and served as a consistent source of inspiration and encouragement to each other. Both were glider pilots. Unlike some other engineers who experimented with the theories of flight. Orville and Wilbur Wright experienced the practical aspects of aerodynamics by building and flying in kites and gilders.

Reading Comprehension 12

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Although its purpose and techniques were often magical, alchemy was, in many ways, the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry. The fundamental premise of alchemy derived from the best philosophical dogma and scientific practice of the time, and the majority of educated  persons between 1400 and 1600 believed that alchemy had great merit.

The earliest authentic works on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher St. Albertus Magnus. In their treatises they maintained that gold was the perfect metal and that inferior metals such as lead and mercury were removed by various degrees of imperfection from gold. They further asserted that these base metals could be transmuted to gold by blending them with a substance more perfect than gold. This elusive substance was referred to as the “philosopher’s stone.”  The process was called transmutation.

Most of the early alchemists were artisans who were accustomed to keeping trade secrets and often resorted to cryptic terminology to record the progress of their work. The term sun was used for gold, moon for silver, and the five known planets for base metals. This convention of substituting symbolic language attracted some mystical philosophers who compared the search for the perfect metal with the struggle of humankind for the perfection of the soul. The philosophers began to use the artisan’s terms in the mystical literature that they produced. Thus, by the fourteenth century, alchemy had developed two distinct groups of practitioners-the laboratory alchemist and the literary alchemist. Both groups of alchemists continued to work throughout the history of alchemy; but, of course, it was the literary alchemist who was more likely to produce a written record; therefore, much of what is known about the science of alchemy is derived from philosophers rather than from the alchemists who labored in laboratories.

Despite centuries of experimentation, laboratory alchemists failed to produce gold from other materials. However, they gained wide knowledge of chemical substances, discovered chemical properties, and invented many of the tools and techniques that are used by chemist today. Many laboratory alchemists earnestly devoted themselves to the scientific discovery of new compounds and reactions and, therefore, must be considered the legitimate forefathers of modern chemistry. They continued to call themselves alchemists, but they were becoming true chemists.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Magical : of or relating to magic.
  • Alchemy : a form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in theMiddleAges and the Renaissance and concerned principally withdiscoveringmethods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with findingauniversal solvent and an elixir of life.
  • Predecessor : a person who precedes another in an office, position, etc.
  • Merit : claim to respect and praise; excellence; worth.
  • Monk : (in Christianity) a man who has withdrawn from the world forreligiousreasons, especially as a member of an order of cenobites livingaccording toa particular rule and under vows of poverty, chastity, andobedience.
  • Treatises : a formal and systematic exposition in writing of the principles of asubject,generally longer and more detailed than an essay.
  • Maintained : to keep in existence or continuance; preserve; retain
  • Lead : Chemistry. a heavy, comparatively soft, malleable, bluish-graymetal,sometimes found in its natural state but usually combined as asulfide,especially in galena. Symbol: Pb; atomic weight: 207.19; atomicnumber: 82;specific gravity: 11.34 at 20°C.
  • Mercury : Chemistry. a heavy, silver-white, highly toxic metallic element, theonly onethat is liquid at room temperature; quicksilver: used inbarometers, thermometers,pesticides, pharmaceutical preparations,reflecting surfaces of mirrors, and dentalfillings, in certain switches,lamps, and other electric apparatus, and as a laboratorycatalyst.Symbol: Hg; atomic weight: 200.59; atomic number: 80; specificgravity:13.546 at 20°C; freezing point: −38.9°C; boiling point:357°C.
  • Imperfection : an imperfect detail; flaw
  • Asserted : resting on a statement or claim unsupported by evidence or proof
  • Transmuted : to change from one nature, substance, form, or condition intoanother;transform.
  • Elusive : eluding or failing to allow for or accommodate a clear perceptionorcomplete mental grasp; hard to express or define
  • Resorted : to sort or arrange (cards, papers, etc.) again.
  • Cryptic : mysterious in meaning; puzzling; ambiguous
  • Mystical : mystic; of or relating to supernatural agencies, affairs, occurrences, etc.
  • Substances : that of which a thing consists; physical matter or material
  • Compounds : composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients
  • Forefathers : an ancestor.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Alchemy was the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry. The fundamental premise of alchemy derived from the best philosophical dogma and scientific practice of the time, and the majority of educated  persons between 1400 and 1600 believed that alchemy had great merit.
  • Paragraph two : The earliest authentic works on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher St. Albertus Magnus. In their treatises they maintained that gold was the perfect metal and that inferior metals such as lead and mercury were removed by various degrees of imperfection from gold.
  • Paragraph three : Most of the early alchemists were artisans who were accustomed to keeping trade secrets and often resorted to cryptic terminology to record the progress of their work. This convention of substituting symbolic language attracted some mystical philosophers who compared the search for the perfect metal with the struggle of humankind for the perfection of the soul. By the fourteenth century, alchemy had developed two distinct groups of practitioners-the laboratory alchemist and the literary alchemist.
  • Paragraph four : The laboratory alchemists failed to produce gold from other materials. However, they gained wide knowledge of chemical substances, discovered chemical properties, and invented many of the tools and techniques that are used by chemist today.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. Which of the following is the main point of the passage?

  • A. They were both laboratory and literary alchemists.
  • B. Base metals can be transmuted to gold by blending them with a substance more perfect than gold.
  • C. Roger Bacon and St. Albertus Magnus wrote about alchemy
  • D. Alchemy was the predecessor of modern chemistry.

2. The word authentic in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Valuable
  • B. Genuine
  • C. Complete
  • D. Comprehensible

3. According to the alchemists, what is the difference between base metals and gold?

  • A. Perfection
  • B. Chemical content
  • C. Temperature
  • D. Weight

4. According to the passage, what is the “philosopher’s stone”?

  • A. Lead that was mixed with gold
  • B. An element that was never found
  • C. Another name for alchemy
  • D. A base metal

5. The word cryptic in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?

  • A. Scholarly
  • B. Secret
  • C. Foreign
  • D. Precise

6. Why did the early alchemists use the terns sun and moon?

  • A. To keep the work secret
  • B. To make the work more literary
  • C. To attract philosophers
  • D. To produce a written record

7. Who were the first alchemists?

  • A. Chemists
  • B. Writer
  • C. Artisans
  • D. Linguists

8. In paragraph 3, the author suggests that we know about the history of alchemy because ?

  • A. The laboratory alchemists kept secret notes
  • B. The literary alchemists recorded it in writing
  • C. The mystical philosophers were not able to hide the secret of alchemy
  • D. The historians were able to interpret the secret writings of the alchemists

9. Which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

  • A. Alchemy must be considered a complete failure.
  • B. Some very important scientific discoveries were made by alchemists.
  • C. Most educated people dismissed alchemy during the time that it was practiced.
  • D. The literary alchemists were more important than the laboratory alchemists.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Alchemy was the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry. The fundamental premise of alchemy derived from the best philosophical dogma and scientific practice of the time, and the majority of educated  persons between 1400 and 1600 believed that alchemy had great merit. Most of the early alchemists were artisans who were accustomed to keeping trade secrets and often resorted to cryptic terminology to record the progress of their work. This convention of substituting symbolic language attracted some mystical philosophers who compared the search for the perfect metal with the struggle of humankind for the perfection of the soul. By the fourteenth century, alchemy had developed two distinct groups of practitioners-the laboratory alchemist and the literary alchemist.

Reading Comprehension 11

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Organic architecture – that is, natural architecture – may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mereaesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it. If these natural principles are upheld, then a bank cannot be built to look like a Greek temple. Form does not follow function; rather, form and function are inseparably two aspects of the same phenomenon. In other words, a building should be inspired by nature’s form and constructed with materials that retain and respect the natural characteristics of the setting to create harmony between the structure and its natural environment. It should maximize people’s contact with and utilization of the outdoors. Furthermore, the rule of functionalism is upheld; that is, the principle of excluding everything that serves no practical purpose.

Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale. Like a sculptor, the organic architect views the site and materials as an innate form that develops organically from within. Truth in architecture results in a natural, spontaneous structure in total harmony with the setting. For the most part, these structures find their geometric shapes in the contours of the land and their colors in the surrounding palette of nature.

From the outside, an organic structure is so much a part of nature that is often obscured by it. In other words, it may be not easy, or maybe not even possible, for the human eye to separate the artificial structure from the natural terrain. Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors. From the inside, living spaces open into one another. The number of walls for separate rooms is reduced to a minimum, allowing the functional spaces to flow together. Moreover, the interiors are sparse. Organic architecture incorporates built-in architectural features such as benches and storage areas to take the place of furniture.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Promulgation : to make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally orputinto operation (a law, decree of a court, etc.).
  • Outright : complete or total
  • Imposed : to lay on or set as something to be borne, endured, obeyed, fulfilled,paid,etc.
  • Mere : being nothing more nor better than
  • Aesthetics : the branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful,theugly, the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with aview toestablishing the meaning and validity of critical judgmentsconcerning works of art,and the principles underlying or justifying suchjudgments.
  • Ultimately : last; furthest or farthest; ending a process or series
  • Upheld : to support or defend, as against opposition or criticism
  • Phenomenon : a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable
  • Retain : to keep possession of.
  • Utilization : to put to use; turn to profitable account
  • Innate : existing in one from birth; inborn; native
  • Contours : the outline of a figure or body; the edge or line that defines or boundsashape or object.
  • Obscured : (of meaning) not clear or plain; ambiguous, vague, or uncertain
  • Artificial : made by human skill; produced by humans (opposed to natural)
  • Terrain : a tract of land, especially as considered with reference to itsnaturalfeatures, military advantages, etc.
  • Permeate : to pass into or through every part of
  • Sparse : thinly scattered or distributed
  • Incorporates : to form into a legal corporation.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Organic architecture or natural architecture may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mere aesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it.
  • Paragraph two : Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale.
  • Paragraph three : Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. According to this passage, what is another name for organic architecture?

  • A. Natural architecture
  • B. Aesthetic architecture
  • C. Principle architecture
  • D. Varied architecture

2. The word ultimate in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Formulate
  • B. Eventually
  • C. Supposedly
  • D. Obviously

3. The word upheld paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Invalidated
  • B. Disputed
  • C. Promoted
  • D. Perceived

4. The following examples are all representative of natural architecture EXCEPT ?

  • A. A bank that is built to look like a Greek temple
  • B. A bank built so that the location is important to the structure
  • C. A bank that is built to conform to the colors of the natural surroundings
  • D. A bank that is built to be functional rather than beautiful

5. Why does the author compare an organic architect to a sculptor?

  • A. To emphasize aesthetics
  • B. To give an example of natural principles
  • C. To make a point about the development of geometry
  • D. To demonstrate the importance of style

6. The word obscured paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Difficult to see
  • B. In high demand
  • C. Not very attractive
  • D. Mutually beneficial

7. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

  • A. Form follows function
  • B. Function follows form
  • C. Function is not important to form
  • D. Form and function are one

8. Which of the following statements best describes the architect’s view of nature?

  • A. Nature should be conquered.
  • B. Nature should not be considered.
  • C. Nature should be respected.
  • D. Nature should be improved.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Organic architecture or natural architecture may vary in concept and form, but it is always faithful to natural principles. The architect dedicated to the promulgation of organic architecture rejects outright all rules imposed by individual preference or mere aesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site, the materials, the purpose of the structure, and the people who will ultimately use it. Natural principles, the are principles of design, not style, expressed by means and modes of construction that reflect unity, balance, proportion, rhythm, and scale. Natural light, air, and view permeate the whole structure, providing a sense of communication with the outdoors.

Reading Comprehension 10

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

The Acacia, a genus of trees and shrubs of the mimosa family that originated in Australia, has long been used there in building simple mud and stick structures. The Acacia is called a wattle in Australia, and the structures are said to be made of daub and wattle. The Acacia is actually related to the family of plants known as legumes that includes peas, beans, lentils, peanuts, and pods with beanlike seeds. Some Acacia actually produce edible crops. Other Acacia varieties are valued for the sticky resin, called gum Arabic or perfumes, for the dark dense wood prized for making pianos, or for the bark, rich in tannin, a dark, acidic substance used to cure the hides of animals, transforming them into leather.

Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world; however, only a dozen of the three hundred Australian varieties thrive in the southern United States. Most acacia imports are low spreading trees, but of these, only three flower, including the Bailey Acacia with fernlike silver leaves and small, fragrant flowers arranged in rounded clusters, the Silver Wattle, similar to the Bailey Acacia, which grows twice as high, and the squat Sidney Golden Wattle, bushy with broad, flat leaves, showy bright yellow blossoms, and sharp spined twigs. Another variety, the Black Acacia, also called the Blackwood, has dark green foliage and unobtrusive blossoms. Besides being a popular ornamental tree, the Black Acacia is considered valuable for its dark wood, which is used in making furniture, as well as highly prized musical instruments.

The Acacia’s unusual custom of blossoming in February has been commonly attributed to its Australian origins, as if the date and not the quality of light made the difference for a tree in its flowering cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, the seasons are reversed, and February, which is wintertime in the United States, is summertime in Australia. Actually, however, the pale, yellow blossoms appear in August in Australia. Whether growing in the lovely acacia blossoms in winter.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Shrubs : a woody plant smaller than a tree, usually having multiple permanentstemsbranching from or near the ground.
  • Mimosa : any of numerous plants, shrubs, or trees belonging to the genusMimosa,of the legume family, native to tropical or warm regions,having small flowers inglobular heads or cylindrical spikes and oftensensitive leaves.
  • Mud : wet, soft earth or earthy matter, as on the ground after rain, at thebottom of apond, or along the banks of a river; mire.
  • Stick : a branch or shoot of a tree or shrub that has been cut or broken off.
  • Daub : to cover or coat with soft, adhesive matter, as plaster or mud
  • Wattle : Often, wattles. a number of rods or stakes interwoven with twigs ortreebranches for making fences, walls, etc.
  • Legumes : any plant of the legume family, especially those used for feed, food, orasa soil-improving crop.
  • Lentils : a plant, Lens culinaris, of the legume family, having flattened,biconvexseeds used as food.
  • Pods : a somewhat elongated, two-valved seed vessel, as that of the pea orbean.
  • Sticky resin : the substance obtained by tapping Rubber Wood logs with a Treetap, and is rarely dropped when chopping Rubber Wood down.
  • Gum Arabic : a water-soluble, gummy exudate obtained from the acaciatree,especially Acacia senegal, used as an emulsifier, an adhesive, in inks,and inpharmaceuticals.
  • Prized : to estimate the worth or value of.
  • Bark : the external covering of the woody stems, branches, and roots ofplants, asdistinct and separable from the wood itself.
  • Leather : an article made of this material.
  • Arid : barren or unproductive because of lack of moisture
  • Thrive : to prosper; be fortunate or successful.
  • Spreading : to draw, stretch, or open out, especially over a flat surface, assomethingrolled or folded (often followed by out).
  • Fernlike : any seedless, nonflowering vascular plant of the class Filicinae, oftropicalto temperate regions, characterized by true roots producedfrom a rhizome, triangularfronds that uncoil upward and have abranching vein system, and reproduction byspores contained insporangia that appear as brown dots on the underside of thefronds.
  • Clusters : a number of things of the same kind, growing or held together; abunch
  • Squat : to settle on or occupy property, especially otherwise unoccupiedproperty,without any title, right, or payment of rent.
  • Bushy : resembling a bush; thick and shaggy
  • Foliage : the leaves of a plant, collectively; leafage.
  • Unobtrusive : not obtrusive; inconspicuous, unassertive, or reticent.
  • Ornamental : used or grown for ornament
  • Attributed : to regard as resulting from a specified cause; consider as causedbysomething indicated (usually followed by to)
  • Hemisphere : (often initial capital letter) half of the terrestrial globe or celestialsphere,especially one of the halves into which the earth is divided.
  • Reversed : opposite or contrary in position, direction, order, or character

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : The Acacia, a genus of trees and shrubs of the mimosa family that originated in Australia, has long been used there in building simple mud and stick structures. The structures are said to be made of daub and wattle. The Acacia is actually related to the family of plants known as legumes. Some Acacia actually produce edible crops.
  • Paragraph two : Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world.
  • Paragraph three : The Acacia’s unusual custom of blossoming in February has been commonly attributed to its Australian origins, as if the date and not the quality of light made the difference for a tree in its flowering cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, the seasons are reversed, and February, which is wintertime in the United States, is summertime in Australia.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?

  • A. The black acacia
  • B. Characteristic and varieties of the acacia
  • C. Australian varieties of the acacia
  • D. The use of acacia wood in ornamental furniture

2. How many species of acacia grow well in the southern united states?

  • A. Five hundred
  • B. Three hundred
  • C. Twelve
  • D. Three

3. The word thrive paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

  • A. Grow well
  • B. Are found
  • C. Were planted
  • D. Can live

4. The word these in paragraph 2 refers to ?

  • A. United states
  • B. Varieties
  • C. Species
  • D. Trees and shrubs

5. According to this passage, the silver wattle ?

  • A. Is squat and bushy
  • B. Has unobtrusive blossoms.
  • C. Is taller than the bailey acacia
  • D. Is used for making furniture

6. In paragraph 2, the word flat most nearly means ?

  • A. Smooth
  • B. Pretty
  • C. Pointed
  • D. Short

7. The word showy in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Strange
  • B. Elaborate
  • C. Huge
  • D. Fragile

8. Which of the following acacias has the least colorful blossoms?

  • A. Bailey acacia
  • B. Sidney golden wattle
  • C. Silver wattle
  • D. Black acacia

9. Which of the following would most probably be made from a black acacia tree?

  • A. A flower arrangement
  • B. A table
  • C. A pie
  • D. Paper

10. When do acacia trees bloom in australia?

  • A. February
  • B. Summer
  • C. August
  • D. Spring

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

The Acacia, a genus of trees and shrubs of the mimosa family that originated in Australia, has long been used there in building simple mud and stick structures. The structures are said to be made of daub and wattle. The Acacia is actually related to the family of plants known as legumes. Some Acacia actually produce edible crops. Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world.

Reading Comprehension 9

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Precipitation, commonly referred to as rainfall, is a measure of the quality of atmospheric water in the form of rain, hail, snow that reaches the ground. The average annual precipitation over the whole of the United States is thirty-six inches per year. It should be understood, however, that all precipitation is not measured equally. For example, a foot of snow does not equal a foot of precipitation. According to the general formula for computing the precipitation of snowfall, ten inches of snow equals one inch of precipitation. In upper New York State, for example, where there is typically a large amount of snowfall every winter, a hundred inches of snow in one year would be recorded as only ten inches of precipitation. On the other hand, rain is rain. Forty inches of rain would be recorded as forty inches of precipitation. The total annual precipitation for an area with forty inches of rain and one hundred inches of snow would be recorded as fifty inches of precipitation.

The amount of precipitation that an area receives is a combined result of several factors, including location, altitude, proximity to the sea, and the direction of prevailing winds. Most of the precipitation in the United States is brought originally by prevailing winds from the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Oceana d the Great Lakes. Because these prevailing winds generally come from the west, the Pacific Coast receives more annual precipitation than the Atlantic Cast. Along the Pacific Coast itself, however, altitude causes some diversity in rainfall. The mountain ranges of the United States, especially the Rocky Mountain Range and the Appalachian Mountain Range, influence the amount of precipitation in the areas to the windward and leeward sides of these ranges. East of the Rocky Mountains, the annual precipitation is substantially less than that west of the Rocky Mountains. The precipitation north of the Appalachian Mountains averages 40 percent less than that south of the Appalachian Mountains. As air currents from the ocean move over land, the air must rise to pass over the mountains. The air cools, and the water that is held in the clouds falls as rain or snow on the ascending side of the mountains. The air, therefore, is much drier on the other side of the mountains.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Hail : showery precipitation in the form of irregular pellets or balls of icemore than 1/5(0.2) inch (5 mm) in diameter, falling from acumulonimbus cloud (distinguished from sleet ).
  • Annual : performed or executed during a year
  • Recorded : to set down in writing or the like, as for the purpose ofpreservingevidence.
  • Altitude : the height of anything above a given planetary reference plane,especiallyabove sea level on earth.
  • Proximity : nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, or relation.
  • Prevailing : having superior power or influence
  • Gulf : a portion of an ocean or sea partly enclosed by land.
  • Diversity : the state or fact of being diverse; difference; unlikeness
  • Windward : toward the wind; toward the point from which the wind blows.
  • Leeward : pertaining to, situated in, or moving toward the quarter toward whichthewind blows (opposed to windward ).

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Precipitation, commonly referred to as rainfall, is a measure of the quality of atmospheric water in the form of rain, hail, snow that reaches the ground. According to the general formula for computing the precipitation of snowfall, ten inches of snow equals one inch of precipitation.
  • Paragraph two : The amount of precipitation that an area receives is a combined result of several factors, including location, altitude, proximity to the sea, and the direction of prevailing winds.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. What does this passage mainly discuss?

  • A. Precipitation
  • B. Snowfall
  • C. New York State
  • D. A general formula

2. Which of the following is another word that is often used in place of precipitation?

  • A. Humidity
  • B. Wetness
  • C. Rainfall
  • D. Rain-snow

3. The term precipitation include ?

  • A. Only rainfall
  • B. Rain, hail, and snow
  • C. Rain, snow, and humidity
  • D. Rain, hail, and humidity

4. What is the average of annual rainfall in inches in the United States?

  • A. Thirty-six inches
  • B. Thirty-eight inches
  • C. Forty inches
  • D. Forty-two inches

5. If a state has 40 inches of snow in a year, by how much does this increase the annual precipitation?

  • A. By two feet
  • B. By four inches
  • C. By four feet
  • D. By 40 inches

6. The phrase proximity to in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. Communication with
  • B. Dependence on
  • C. Nearness to
  • D. Similarity to

7. Where is the annual precipitation highest?

  • A. The Atlantic Coast
  • B. The Great Lakes
  • C. The Gulf of Mexico
  • D. The Pacific Coast

8. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a factor in determining the amount of precipitation that an area will receive?

  • A. Mountains
  • B. Latitude
  • C. The sea
  • D. Wind

9. The word substantially in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Fundamentally
  • B. Slightly
  • C. Completely
  • D. Apparently

10. The word that in the paragraph 2 refers to ?

  • A. Decreases
  • B. Precipitation
  • C. Areas
  • D. Mountain ranges

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Precipitation, commonly referred to as rainfall, is a measure of the quality of atmospheric water in the form of rain, hail, snow that reaches the ground. According to the general formula for computing the precipitation of snowfall, ten inches of snow equals one inch of precipitation. The amount of precipitation that an area receives is a combined result of several factors, including location, altitude, proximity to the sea, and the direction of prevailing winds.

Reading Comprehension 8

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

The protozoans, mimute aquatic creature, each of which consists of a single cell of protoplasm, constitute a classification of the most primitive forms of animal life. The very name protozoan indicates the scientific understanding of the animals. Proto- means first or primitive, and zoa refers to animals. They are fantastically diverse, but three major groups may be identified on the basis of their motility. The Mastigophora have one or more long tail that they use to propel themselves forward. The Ciliata which use the same basic means for locomotion as the Mastigophora, have a larger number of short tails. The Sarcodina, which include amoebae, float and row themselves about on their crusted bodies.

In addition to their form of movement, several other features discriminate among the three groups of protozoans. For example, at least two nuclei per cell have been identified in the Ciliata, usually a large nucleus that regulates growth but decomposes during reproduction, and a smaller one that contains the genetic code necessary to generate the large nucleus.

Chlorophyl, which is the green substance encountered in plants, is found in the bodies of some protozoans, enabling them to make some of their own food from water and carbon dioxide. Protozoans are not considered plants but animals, because unlike pigmented plants to which some protozoans are otherwise almost identical, they do not live on simple organic compounds. Their cell demonstrates all of the major characteristics of the cells of higher animals, such as eating, breathing, and reproducing.

Many species of protozoans collect into colonies, physically connected to one another are responding uniformly to outside stimulate. Current research into this phenomenon along with investigations carried out with advanced microscopes may necessitate a redefinition of what constitutes protozoans, even calling into question the basic premise that they have only one cell. Nevertheless, with the current data available, almost 40,000 species of protozoans have been identified. No doubt, as technology improves methods of observation, better models of classification of these simple single cells will be proposed.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Constitute : to compose; form
  • Diverse : of a different kind, form, character, etc.
  • Motility : Biology. moving or capable of moving spontaneously
  • Propel : to drive, or cause to move, forward or onward
  • Locomotion : the act or power of moving from place to place.
  • Crusted : having a crust; encrusted.
  • Discriminate : to make a distinction in favor of or against a person or thing onthebasis of the group, class, or category to which the person or thingbelongs ratherthan according to actual merit
  • Regulates : to control or direct by a rule, principle, method, etc.
  • Enabling : conferring new legal powers or capacities, especially by removingadisability; having the right to license or regulate
  • Compounds : composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients
  • Stimulate : to rouse to action or effort, as by encouragement or pressure; spuron;incite
  • Necessitate : to make necessary or unavoidable
  • Constitutes : to compose; form

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : The protozoans, mimute aquatic creature, each of which consists of a single cell of protoplasm, constitute a classification of the most primitive forms of animal life. They are fantastically diverse, but three major groups may be identified on the basis of their motility. The Mastigophora have one or more long tail that they use to propel themselves forward. The Ciliata which use the same basic means for locomotion as the Mastigophora, have a larger number of short tails. The Sarcodina, which include amoebae, float and row themselves about on their crusted bodies.
  • Paragraph two : In addition to their form of movement, several other features discriminate among the three groups of protozoans.
  • Paragraph three : Protozoans are not considered plants but animals, because unlike pigmented plants to which some protozoans are otherwise almost identical, they do not live on simple organic compounds.
  • Paragraph four : Many species of protozoans collect into colonies, physically connected to one another are responding uniformly to outside stimulate. As technology improves methods of observation, better models of classification of these simple single cells will be proposed.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. With what topics is the passage primarily concerned?

  • A. Colonies of protozoans
  • B. Mastigophora
  • C. Motility in protozoans
  • D. Characteristic of protozoans

2. The word mimute in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Very common
  • B. Very fast
  • C. Very old
  • D. Very small

3. What is protoplasm?

  • A. A class of protozoan
  • B. The substance that forms the cell of a protozoan
  • C. A primitive animal similar to a protozoan
  • D. An animal that develop from a protozoan

4. What does the author mean by the statement They are fantastically diverse, but three major groups may be identified on the basis of their motility?

  • A. The three major groups are unique in that they all move in the same manner.
  • B. Everything we know about the protozoans is tied into their manner of movement.
  • C. The manner of movement is critical when classifying the three major groups of protozoan.
  • D. Mobility in the protozoan is insignificant.

5. To which class of protozoans do the amoebae belong?

  • A. Mastigophora
  • B. Ciliata
  • C. Sarcodina
  • D. Motility

6. What is the purpose of the large nucleus in the Ciliata?

  • A. It generates the other nucleus.
  • B. It contains the genetic code for the small nucleus.
  • C. It regulates growth.
  • D. It reproduces itself.

7. Why are protozoans classified as animals?

  • A. They do not live on simple organic compounds.
  • B. They collect in colonies.
  • C. They respond uniformly to outside stimulate.
  • D. They may have more than one cell.

8. The word they in paragraph 3 refers to ?

  • A. Protozoans
  • B. Microscope
  • C. Investigations
  • D. Colonies

9. Which of the following statements is NOT true of protozoans?

  • A. There are approximately 40,000 species.
  • B. They are the most primitive forms of animal life.
  • C. They have a large cell and a smaller cell.
  • D. They are difficult to observe.

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

The protozoans, mimute aquatic creature, each of which consists of a single cell of protoplasm, constitute a classification of the most primitive forms of animal life. They are fantastically diverse, but three major groups may be identified on the basis of their motility. The Mastigophora have one or more long tail that they use to propel themselves forward. The Ciliata which use the same basic means for locomotion as the Mastigophora, have a larger number of short tails. The Sarcodina, which include amoebae, float and row themselves about on their crusted bodies. As technology improves methods of observation, better models of classification of these simple single cells will be proposed

Reading Comprehension 7

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

The San Andreas Fault line is a fracture at the congruence of two major plates of the Earth’s crust, one of which support most of the North American continent, and the other of which underlies the coast of California and part of the ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean. The fault originates about six hundred miles south of the Gulf of California, runs north in an irregular line along the western coast to San Francisco, and continues north for about two hundred more miles before angling off into the ocean. In places, the trace of the fault is marked by a trench, or, in geological terms, a rift, and a small ponds dot the landscape. Its western side always move north in relation to its eastern side. The total net slip along the San Andreas Fault and the length of time it has been active are matters of conjecture, but it has been estimated that, during the past fifteen million years, coastal California along the San Andreas Fault has moved about 190 miles in a northwesterly direction with respect to the North American plate. Although the movement along the fault averages only a few inches a year, it is intermittent and variable. Some segments of the fault do not have move at all for long periods of time, building up tremendous pressure that must be released. For this reason, tremors are not unusual along the San Andreas Fault, some of which are classified as major earthquakes. Also for this reason, small tremors are interpreted as safe, since they are understood to be pressure that releases without causing much damage.

It is worth nothing that the San Andreas Fault passes uncomfortably close to several major metropolitan areas, including Los Angeles and San Francisco. In addition, the San Andreas Fault  has created smaller fault systems, many of which underlie the smaller towns and cities along the  California coast. For this reason, Californians have long anticipated the recurrence of what they refer to as the “Big One,” a chain reaction of destructive earthquakes that would measure near 8 on the Richter scale, similar in intensity to those that occurred in 1857 and 1906. Such a quake would wreak devastating effects on the life and property in the region. Unfortunately, as pressure continues to build along the fault, the likelihood of such an earthquake increases substantially.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Fracture : a break, breach, or split.
  • Congruence : the quality or state of agreeing or corresponding.
  • Plates : In plate tectonics, one of the sections of the Earth’s lithosphere (crustandupper mantle) that is in constant motion along with othersections.
  • Crust : the outer layer of the earth, about 22 miles (35 km) deepunder the continents(continental crust) and 6 miles (10 km) deepunder the oceans (oceanic crust)
  • Gulf : a portion of an ocean or sea partly enclosed by land.
  • Angling : the act or art of fishing with a hook and line, usually attached to a rod.
  • Trench : a long, narrow excavation in the ground, the earth fromwhich is thrown up infront to serve as a shelter from enemy fire orattack.
  • Rift : an opening made by splitting, cleaving, etc.; fissure; cleft; chink.
  • Ponds : a body of water smaller than a lake, sometimes artificially formed, asbydamming a stream.
  • Net : sold at a stated price with all parts and charges included and with alldeductionshaving been made.
  • Conjecture : the formation or expression of an opinion or theory withoutsufficientevidence for proof.
  • Estimated : to form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding the worth,amount,size, weight, etc.
  • Coastal : of, relating to, bordering on, or located near a coast
  • Intermittent : stopping or ceasing for a time; alternately ceasing and beginningagain
  • Segments : one of the parts into which something naturally separates or is divided;adivision, portion, or section
  • Tremendous : extraordinarily great in size, amount, or intensity
  • Devastating : tending or threatening to devastate
  • Substantially : of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc.

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : The San Andreas Fault line is a fracture at the congruence of two major plates of the Earth’s crust, one of which support most of the North American continent, and the other of which underlies the coast of California and part of the ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean. The fault originates about six hundred miles south of the Gulf of California, runs north in an irregular line along the western coast to San Francisco, and continues north for about two hundred more miles before angling off into the ocean.
  • Paragraph two : The San Andreas Fault passes uncomfortably close to several major metropolitan areas, including Los Angeles and San Francisco. In addition, the San Andreas Fault  has created smaller fault systems, many of which underlie the smaller towns and cities along the  California coast.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

  • A. To describe the San Andreas Fault
  • B. To give a definition of a fault
  • C. To explain the reason for tremors and earthquakes
  • D. To classify different kinds of faults

2. How does the author define the San Andreas Fault?

  • A. A plate that underlies the North American continent
  • B. A crack in the Earth’s crush between two plates.
  • C. Occasional tremors and earthquakes
  • D. Intense pressure that builds up

3. The word originates in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Gets wider
  • B. Changes direction
  • C. Begins
  • D. Disappears

4. In which direction does the western side of the fault move?

  • A. West
  • B. East
  • C. North
  • D. South

5. The word it in the paragraph 1 refers to ?

  • A. San Francisco
  • B. Ocean
  • C. Coast
  • D. Fault

6. The word intermittent in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which one of the following?

  • A. Dangerous
  • B. Predictable
  • C. Uncommon
  • D. Occasional

7. Along the San Andreas Fault, tremors are ?

  • A. Small and insignificant
  • B. Rare, but disastrous
  • C. Frequent events
  • D. Very unpredictable

8. The phrase “the Big One” refers to which of the following?

  • A. A serious earthquake
  • B. The San Andreas Fault
  • C. The river scale
  • D. California

9. Which of the following words best describes the San Andreas Fault?

  • A. Straight
  • B. Deep
  • C. Wide
  • D. Rough

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

The San Andreas Fault line is a fracture at the congruence of two major plates of the Earth’s crust, one of which support most of the North American continent, and the other of which underlies the coast of California and part of the ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean. The fault originates about six hundred miles south of the Gulf of California, runs north in an irregular line along the western coast to San Francisco, and continues north for about two hundred more miles before angling off into the ocean.

Reading Comprehension 6

1. READ TEXT QUICKLY AND SIGN DIFFICULT WORDS

Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah Webster did. Born in West Hartford, Connecticut, in 1758, Webster graduated from Yale in 1778. He was admitted to the bar in 1781 and thereafter began to practice law in Harford. Later, when he turned to teaching, he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation. In response to the need for truly American textbooks, Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language, a three-volume work that consisted of speller, a grammar, and a reader. The first volume, which was generally known as The American Spelling Book, was so popular that eventually it sold more than 80 million copies and provided him with a considerable income for the rest of life. While teaching, Webster began work on the Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, which was published in 1806, and was also very successful.

In 1807, Noah Webster began his greatest work, An American Dictionary of the English Language.  In preparing the manuscript, he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages, and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States. Webster’s purpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was developing distinct meanings, pronounciation, and spellings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing simplified spelling forms: develop instead of develope; plow instead of plough jail instead of gaol; theater and center instead of theatre and centre; color and honor instead of colour and honour.

Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for his American Speller. He continued, for the next fifty years, to lobby for improvements in the protection of intellectual properties, that is, author‘s rights. In 1840 Webster brought out a second edition of his dictionary, which included 70.000 entries instead of the original 38.000. The name Webster has become synonymous with American dictionaries. This edition served as the basis for the many revisions that have been produced by others, ironically, under the uncopyrighted Webster name.

2. NEW VOCABULARY WITH THEIR MEANING

  • Influenced : the capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force onorproduce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc.
  • Extent : the space or degree to which a thing extends; length, area, volume,or scope
  • Graduated : characterized by or arranged in degrees, especially successively,asaccording to height, depth, or difficulty
  • Admitted : to allow to enter; grant or afford entrance to
  • The bar : before all the judges of a court
  • Inadequate : Psychiatry. ineffectual in response to emotional, social, intellectual,andphysical demands in the absence of any obvious mental or physicaldeficiency.
  • Considerable : rather large or great in size, distance, extent, etc.
  • Devoted : to give up or appropriate to or concentrate on a particularpursuit,occupation, purpose, cause, etc.
  • Simplified : to make less complex or complicated; make plainer or easier
  • Copyright : the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploitaliterary, musical, or artistic work, whether printed, audio, video, etc.
  • Properties : that which a person owns; the possession or possessions of aparticularowner
  • Entries : an act of entering; entrance
  • Revisions : the act or work of revising.
  • Uncopyrighted : the opposite of copyright

3. THE IDEAS OF EACH PARAGRAPH

  • Paragraph one : Noah Webster born in West Hartford, Connecticut, in 1758, Webster graduated from Yale in 1778. He was admitted to the bar in 1781 and thereafter began to practice law in Harford. Later, when he turned to teaching, he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation. In response to the need for truly American textbooks, Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language, a three-volume work that consisted of speller, a grammar, and a reader.
  • Paragraph two : In 1807, Noah Webster began his greatest work, An American Dictionary of the English Language.  In preparing the manuscript, he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages, and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States.
  • Paragraph three : Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for his American Speller. He continued, for the next fifty years, to lobby for improvements in the protection of intellectual properties, that is, author‘s rights.

4. ANSWER FROM THE QUESTIONS GIVEN

1. Which of the following would the best title for the passage?

  • A. Webster’s Work
  • B. Webster’s Dictionary
  • C. Webster’s School
  • D. Webster’s Life

2. The word inadequate in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by ?

  • A. Unavailable
  • B. Expensive
  • C. Difficult
  • D. Unsatisfactory

3. Why did Webster write A Grammatical Institutes of the English Language?

  • A. He wanted to supplement his income.
  • B. There were no books available after the Revolutionary War.
  • C. He felt that British books were not appropriate for American children.
  • D. The children did not know how to spell.

4. From which publication did Webster earn a lifetime income?

  • A. Compendious Dictionary of the English Language
  • B. An American Dictionary of the English Language
  • C. An American Dictionary of the English Language: Second Edition
  • D. The American Spelling Book

5. The word considerable in paragraph 1 most nearly means ?

  • A. Large
  • B. Prestigious
  • C. Steady
  • D. Unexpected

6. When was An American Dictionary of the English Language published ?

  • A. 1817
  • B. 1807
  • C. 1828
  • D. 1824

7. The word it in the paragraph 2 refers to ?

  • A. Language
  • B. Usage
  • C. Authority
  • D. Dictionary

8. The word distinct in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ?

  • A. New
  • B. Simple
  • C. Different
  • D. Exact

9. According to this passage, which one of the following spellings would Webster have approved in his dictionaries?

  • A. Develope
  • B. Theatre
  • C. Color
  • D. Honour

5. SUMMARY OF THE PASSAGE

Noah Webster born in West Hartford, Connecticut, in 1758, Webster graduated from Yale in 1778. He was admitted to the bar in 1781 and thereafter began to practice law in Harford. In response to the need for truly American textbooks, Webster published A Grammatical Institute of the English Language, a three-volume work that consisted of speller, a grammar, and a reader. Webster was the first author to gain copyright protection in the United States by being awarded a copyright for his American Speller. He continued, for the next fifty years, to lobby for improvements in the protection of intellectual properties, that is, author‘s rights.